UNIT 63. Adjective + to …

Australia-26 grammar

A

Hard to understand, etc.

-—————————–
Compare sentences (a) and (b)

Jim doesn’t speak very clearly.
(a) It is hard to understand him.
(b) He is hard to understand.

Sentences (a) and (b) have the same meaning. Note that we say:
– He is hard to understand. (not He is hard to understand him.)
-—————————–

You can use the same structures with:

easy
difficult
impossible
dangerous
safe
expensive
cheap
nice
good
interesting
exciting
  • Do you think it is safe (for us) to drink this water?
    Do you think water is safe (for us) to drink? (not to drink it)

  • The questions on the exam were very difficult. It was impossible to answer them.
    The questions on the exam were very difficult. They were impossible to answer.
    (not to answer them)

  • Jill has lots of interesting ideas. It’s interesting to talk to her.
    Jill is interesting to talk to. (not to talk to her.)

You can also use this structure with adjective + noun:
– This is a difficult question (for me) to answer. (not to answer it)

B

(It’s) nice of (you) to …

You can say, “It’s nice of somebody to do something”:
– It was nice of you to take me to the airport. Thank you very much.

You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:

careless
kind
mean
considerate
foolish
stupid
generous
unfair
  • It’s foolish of Mary to quit her job when she needs the money.
  • I think it was very unfair of him to criticize me.

C

I’m sorry to … / I was surprised to …, etc.

You can use adjective + to … to say how somebody reacts to something:
– I was sorry to hear that your father is ill.

You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:

happy
disappointed
glad
surprised
pleased
amazed
sad
relieved
  • Was Julia surprised to see you?
  • It was a long and tiring trip. We were glad to get home.

D

The first (person) to know / the next (train) to arrive

You can use to … after the first/second/third, etc., and also after the last, the next, the only:
– If I have any more news, you will be the first (person) to know.
– The next plane to arrive at Gate 4 will be Flight 268 from Bogota.
– Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time.

E

You can say that something is sure/certain/likely/bound to happen:
– Carla is a very good student. She’s bound to pass the exam. (= she is sure to pass)
– I’m likely to get home late tonight. (= I will probably et home late)

grammar
kaki en talk ~英語が苦手な日本人エンジニアが書く 英語の日記~ (解説付き)

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