UNIT 91. Relative Clauses 2: Clauses with and without who/that/which

UK-04 grammar

A

Look at these example sentences from Unit 90:

-—————————–
– The woman “who” lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman that lives ..)

“who” – “The woman” lives next door.

who (= the woman) is the subject.

  • Where is the cheese “that” was in the refrigerator? (or the cheese which was …)

    “that” – “The cheese” was in the refrigerator. that(= the cheese) is the subject
    -—————————–

You must use who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause.
You cannot say “The woman lives next door is a doctor” or “Where is the cheese was in the refrigerator?”

B

Sometimes who/that/which is the object of the verb. For example”
-—————————–
– The woman “who” I wanted to see was away on vacation.

I wanted to see the “woman”
(“who” – “woman”)

who = the woman = object
I is the subject

  • Have you found the key “that” you lost?

You lost “the keys”.
(“that” – “the keys”)

that = the keys = object
You is the subject
-—————————–

When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. So you can say:
– The woman I wanted to see was away. or The woman who I wanted to see …
– Have you found the keys you lost? or … the keys that you lost?
– The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. or The dress that Ann bought …
– Is there anything I can do? or … anything that I can do?

Note that we say:
– the keys you lost (not the keys you lost them)
– the dress Ann bought (not the dress Ann bought it)

C

Note the position of prepositions (in/to/for, etc.) in relative clauses:
-—————————–
Tom is talking “to” a woman – do you know her?

-> Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking “to”?

I slept “in” a bed last night – it wasn’t very comfortable

-> The bed (that/which) I slept “in” last night wasn’t very comfortable.
-—————————–

  • Are these the books you were looking for? or … the books that/which you were …
  • The woman he fell in love with left him after a month. or The woman who/that he …
  • The man I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time. or The man who/that I was sitting next to …

Note that we say:
the books you were looking for (not the books you were looking for them)

D

You cannot use what in sentences like these (see also Unit 90C):
– Everything (that) they said was true. (not Everything what they said)
– I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not all the money what I had)

What = “the thing(s) that”:
– Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)

grammar
kaki en talk ~英語が苦手な日本人エンジニアが書く 英語の日記~ (解説付き)

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