UNIT 93. Relative Clauses 4: Extra Information Clauses(1)

UK-06 grammar

A

There are two types of relative clauses. I these examples, the relative clauses are underlined.

Compare:
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Type 1

  • The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
  • Barbara works for a company that makes furniture.
  • We stayed at the hotel

In these examples, the relative clause tells you which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:
– “The woman who lives next door” tells us which woman.
– “A company that makes furniture” tells us what kind of company.
– “The hotel (that) you recommended” tells us which hotel.

We do not use commas (,) with these clauses:
– People who come from Texas love football

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Type 2

  • My brother Jim, who lives in Houston, is a doctor.
  • Brad told me about his new job, which he’s enjoying a lot.
  • We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which a friend of ours recommended.

In these examples, the relative clauses do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means.
We already know which thing or person is meant: “My brother Jim,” “Brad’s new job,” and “the Grand Hotel.”

The relative clause in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing.

We use commas (,) with these clauses:
– My English teacher, who comes from Texas, loves computers.

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B

In both types of relative clauses we use who for people and which for things. But:

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Type 1

You can use that:
– Do you know anyone who/that speaks French and Italian?
– Barbara works for a company which/that makes furniture.

You can leave out who/which/that when it is the object:
– We stayed at the hotel (that/which) you recommended.
– THis morning I met somebody (who/that) I hadn’t seen for ages.

We do not often use whom in this type of clause.

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Type 2

You cannot use that:
– John, who (not that) speaks French and Italian, works as a tour guide.
– Brad told me about his new job, which (not that) he’s enjoying a lot.

You cannot leave out who or which:

  • We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which a friend of ours recommended.
  • This morning I met Chris, who I hadn’t seen for ages.

You can use whom for people (when it is the object):
– This morning I met Chris, whom I hadn’t seen for ages.
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In both types of relative clauses you can use whose and where:
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– We met some people whose car had broken down.
– What’s the name of the place where you spent your vacation?
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– Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.
– Mrs. Bond is spending a few weeks in Sweden, where her daughter lives.
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grammar
kaki en talk ~英語が苦手な日本人エンジニアが書く 英語の日記~ (解説付き)

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