A phrase in a part of a sentences. Some phrases begin with -ing or -ed. For example:
Do you know the woman talking to Tom?
“talking to Tom” … – ing phase
The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
“injured in the accident” … -ed phrase
the boy injured
in the accident
We use -ing phrases to say what somebody (or something) is (or was) doing at a particular time:
– Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (the woman is talking to Tom)
– Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)
– Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)
– I was awaked by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
You can also use an -ing phrase to say what happens all the time, not just at a particular time. For example:
– The road connecting the two towns is very narrow.
(the road connects the two towns)
– I have a large bedroom overlooking the garden.
(the room overlooks the garden)
– Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with “t”?
(the name begins with “t”)
-ed phrases have a passive meaning:
– The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital
(he was injured in the accident)
– George showed me some pictures painted by his father.
(they had been painted by his father)
Injured and painted are past participles. Note that many past participles are irregular and do not end in -ed (stolen/made/written, etc.):
– The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.
– Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.
We often use -ing and -ed phrases after there is ; there was, etc.:
– There were some children swimming in the river.
– Is there anybody waiting?
– There was a big red car parked outside the house.