UNIT 99. Adjectives and Adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly)

Canada-01 grammar

A

Good/well

Good is an adjective. The adverb is well:
– Your English is good. but You speak English well.
– Susan is a good pianist. but Susan plays the piano well.

We use well (not good) with past participles (dressed/known, etc.):

well dressed
well known
well educated
well paid
  • Gary’s father is a well known writer.

But well is also an adjective with the meaning “in good health”:
– “How are you today?” “I’m very well, thanks.”

B

Fast/hard/late

These words are both adjectives and adverbs:

Adjective

  • Jack is very fast runner.
  • Kate is a hard worker.
  • I was late.

Adverb

  • Jack can run very fast.
  • Kate works hard. (not works hardly)
  • I got up late this morning.

Lately = recently:
– Have you seen Tom lately?

C

Hardly

Hardly = very little, almost not. Study these examples:
– Sarah wasn’t very friendly at the party. She hardly spoke to me.
(= she spoke to me very little, almost not at all)
– We’ve only met once or twice. We hardly know each other.

Hard and hardly are different. Compare:
– He tried hard to find a job, but he had no luck. (= he tried a lot, with a lot of effort)
– I’m not surprised he didn’t find a job. He hardly tried to fine one. (= he tried very little)

You can use hardly + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere:
– A : How much money have we got?
B : Hardly any. (= very little, almost none)
– These two cameras are very similar. There’s hardly any difference between them.
– The results of the test were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed. (= very few students passed)

Note that you can say:
– She said hardly anything. or She hardly said anything.
– We’ve got hardly any money. or We’ve hardly got any money.

I can hardly do something = it’s very difficult for me, almost impossible”
– Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. (= it is almost impossible to read it)
– My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk.

Hardly ever = almost never:
– I’m nearly always at home at night. I hardly ever go out.

Hardly also means “certainly not.” For example:
– It’s hardly surprising that you’re tired. You haven’t slept for three days. (= it’s certainly not surprising)
– The situation is serious, but it’s hardly a crisis. (= it’s certainly not a crisis)

grammar
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